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Third-Party Studies

Data Generated by Third-Parties

cleanSURFACES® provide an innovative way to continuously maintain cleanliness of strategic environmental surfaces in healthcare and other facilities. Third party data about cleanSURFACES® are set forth below.*

Clinical Studies

Disruption of Transmission Network Inhibits Spread of Contamination

Cutting-edge study exploring the impact on the contamination transmission network of strategic placement of cleanSURFACES® in an ICU. This study found that use of the cleanSURFACES® on several surfaces with high impact in the contamination transmission network significantly reduced bacteria (including in spore form) on many high touch surfaces NOT covered with the products. For example, 89% of bacterial species were eliminated on the nearby but uncovered WOW keyboards. Many key bacterial species, including C. diff, were among those eliminated from all sampled surfaces after the intervention with cleanSURFACES®.

Lamendella R, PhD, Wright JR, Shope AJ, MD. (2019). Currently unpublished report, Contamination Source Identification, Inc.

Continuous Reduction of Bioburden in ICU (Updated)

Triple-blind, ICU-based study on cleanSURFACES® demonstrating 45 days of continuous reduction of bacteria on the products compared to similar uncovered surfaces. As much as a seven-fold increase in surfaces rendered non-infective was observed, depending on the infective threshold assumed.

Patel R, MD, et al. (2019). Currently unpublished manuscript, Easton Hospital.

Continuous Reduction of Bioburden in ICU (Original)

ICU-based study on early generation cleanSURFACES® demonstrating continuous reduction of bacteria on the products compared to similar uncovered surfaces. Over a multi-week period, cleanSURFACES® placed on bed rails demonstrated continuous > 80% reduction of bacteria (including a significant, continuous reduction of key pathogens), as well as a nearly 5x increase in the surfaces free of bacteria.

Esolen LM, Thakur L, Layon A, et. al. (2018). “The Efficacy of a Self-disinfecting Bedrail Cover in an Intensive Care Unit.” Am J Infect Control, 4(46), 417-19.

Lab Studies


Tests on early generation cleanSURFACES® technology demonstrate 6 log reduction of E. coli in 5 minutes and up to 5 log reduction of MRSA in 10 minutes. Additional third-party tests are underway

Agile Sciences, Inc. (2014). Unpublished report.

C. diff Spores

Tests on early generation cleanSURFACES® technology demonstrated up to 1.46 log reduction of C. diff spores.  (This data is likely not reflective of the performance of current generation technology.)

Cadnum J, Livingston S,. (2018). Unpublished data, Curtis Donskey Research Services.


Tests on cleanSURFACES® products demonstrated the reduction of H1N1 virus of 1.7 log10 and 4.7 log10 at 10 and 30 minutes, respectively, and of murine norovirus of 1.2 log10 and 4.5 log10 at 10 and 30 minutes, respectively.  Testing currently underway against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Mendenhall M. (2019). Unpublished report, Utah State University.

Safety Studies

Biocompatibility Study

Study demonstrating “good biocompatibility” of early generation cleanSURFACES® technology with three mammalian cell lines: neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK), neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), and normal human osteoblasts (OST).

Samberg M, Tan Z, Monteiro-Riviere N, Orndorff P, and Shirwaiker R. “Biocompatibility analysis of an electrically-activated silver-based antibacterial surface system for medical device applications.” (2012).  Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. DOI 10.1007/s10856-012-4838-5.

EPA-Required Animal Studies

The following studies were performed by a third-party lab as part of the EPA registration process: (i) dermal sensitization test (guinea pigs); (ii) acute oral toxicity (rats); (iii) acute dermal toxicity (rats); (iv) primary eye irritation (rabbits); and (v) primary skin irritation (rabbits).

Product Safety Labs. (2016). Unpublished reports.

Other, Relevant Research About Addressing Environmental Contamination

Reduced Environmental Contamination Correlates with Reduced Infection Rate

This is the first study to describe the full pathway whereby enhanced disinfection decreases microbial contamination, which in turn reduces patient colonization and infection. The authors find that a 94% improvement in room disinfection led to 35% reduction in patient colonization/infection.

Rutala WA MPH, Kanamori H MD, PhD, MPH, Gergen MF MT (ASCP), et al. “Enhanced disinfection leads to reduction of microbial contamination and a decrease in patient colonization and infection”. (2018). Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 39, 1118-1121. doe:10.1017/ice.2018.165. 

Better Cleaning of Key Surfaces Reduces Contamination Throughout Outpatient Facility

Published study describes the impact on environmental contamination in an entire healthcare clinic of manual disinfection of targeted high touch surfaces. One-time disinfection of select surfaces briefly reduced surface contamination throughout the clinic by 94%.

Reynolds KA, PhD, Sexton JD, PhD, Pivo T, MS, Humphrey K, MS, Lesie RA, MS, Gerba CP, PhD. “Microbial transmission in an outpatient clinic and impact of an intervention with an ethanol-based disinfectant. (2019, in press). Am J Infect Control.

Network Science Used to Inform Infection Prevention Strategies

Published study provides the most comprehensive analysis of hospital contact networks yet published. The authors suggest their types of insights could assist the development of novel network-based strategies for the prevention and control of HAIs.

English KA, Langley JM, McGeer A, et al. “Contact among healthcare workers in the hospital setting: developing the evidence base for innovative approaches to infection control”. (2018). BMC Infectious Diseases. 18:184.

* The cleanSURFACES® technology is registered with the EPA (EPA Reg. No. 91681-1) as an antimicrobial agent that effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria, viruses and fungi that cause unpleasant odors, discoloration, staining, deterioration or corrosion on surfaces to which it is applied. The EPA has not reviewed or approved, nor we hereby make,  claims that the technology mitigates, prevents, treats, cures or diagnoses disease in humans. The use of cleanSURFACES® products is a supplement to and not a substitute for standard infection control practices; users must continue to follow all current infection control practices, including those practices related to cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces.